First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to explore the stable configurations, electronic structures, and vibrational spectra of neutral and charged silicon monoxide clusters (SiO)n(0,±) (n = 2-7), which could be used as precursors in the synthesis of silicon nanowires. Our theoretical calculations provide new results on characteristic electron affinity, ionization potential, and vibrational spectroscopy, guiding future experiments in the synthesis of high-quality silicon nanowires. Specifically, as the number of SiO units n increases, IR spectra of (SiO)n± and Raman spectra of (SiO)n- show an evident blue shift, and Raman spectra of (SiO)n demonstrate a red shift. Moreover, most of the neutral silicon monoxide clusters have strong IR intensities and weak Raman activities, while most of the anionic counterparts have relatively weak IR intensities and strong Raman activities. Some other energetically competitive isomers of some (SiO)n(0,±) species were also studied for comparison.