Electroactive controlled release thin films

Kris C. Wood, Nicole S. Zacharia, Daniel J. Schmidt, Stefani N. Wrightman, Brian J. Andaya, Paula T. Hammond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

126 Scopus citations


We present the fabrication of nanoscale electroactive thin films that can be engineered to undergo remotely controlled dissolution in the presence of a small applied voltage (+1.25 V) to release precise quantities of chemical agents. These films, which are assembled by using a nontoxic, FDA-approved, electroactive material known as Prussian Blue, are stable enough to release a fraction of their contents after the application of a voltage and then to restabilize upon its removal. As a result, it is possible to externally trigger agent release, exert control over the relative quantity of agents released from a film, and release multiple doses from one or more films in a single solution. These electroactive systems may be rapidly and conformally coated onto a wide range of substrates without regard to size, shape, or chemical composition, and as such they may find use in a host of new applications in drug delivery as well as the related fields of tissue engineering, medical diagnostics, and chemical detection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2280-2285
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number7
StatePublished - Feb 19 2008


  • Drug delivery
  • Layer-by-layer thin film
  • Polymer
  • Prussian blue
  • Responsive materials


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