Efficacy of quality criteria to identify potentially harmful information: A cross-sectional survey of complementary and alternative medicine Web sites

Muhammad Walji, Smitha Sagaram, Deepak Sagaram, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Craig Johnson, Nadeem Q. Mirza, Elmer V. Bernstam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods: We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results: Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions: Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of medical Internet research
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2004

Keywords

  • Complementary and alternative medicine
  • Harm
  • Internet
  • Medical information
  • Quality
  • World Wide Web

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