Efficacy of participant modeling as a function of response induction aids

Albert Bandura, Robert W. Jeffery, Carolyn L. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Tested the efficacy of participant modeling as a function of the amount of response induction aids employed. 36 adult snake phobics (4 males, 32 females) received participant modeling with either a low, a moderate, or a high number of aids. Marked changes in behavior and attitudes were rapidly induced when a wide array of performance aids was available, whereas progress was retarded and attainments were substantially lower given limited auxiliary options. Therapeutic efficacy, however, was not monotonically related to number of performance facilitators. Modeling with moderate induction aids generally yielded comparable results to the more highly aided treatment and, on some measures, produced greater generalization effects. Supplementary findings indicated that generalized changes are best achieved by using aided participant modeling to restore inhibited behavior, followed by self-directed practice to extinguish residual fears and to reinforce personal mastery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-64
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of abnormal psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1974


  • amount of response induction aids, participant modeling, adult snake phobics


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