The effectiveness of different concrete and pictorial models on students' understanding of the part-whole construct for fractions was investigated. Using interview data from fourth and fifth grade students from three different districts that adopted the Mathematics Trailblazers series, authors identified strengths and limitations of models used. Pattern blocks had limited value in aiding students' construction of mental images for the part-whole model as well as limited value in building meaning for adding and subtracting fractions. A paper fraction chart based on a paper folding model supported students' ability to order fractions with same numerators but was less useful in helping students on estimation tasks. The dot paper model and chips did not support fifth grade students' initial understanding of the algorithm.