We have examined the suitability of a variety of fixation regimes for immunofluorescence localization of tubulin and calmodulin in meristematic plant cells. Acrolein and most fixatives that contain glutaraldehyde (GA), while they have been employed by others in immunoenzyme, immunogold or immunofluorescence studies of plant endosperm, animal or plant tissue culture cells, cause unacceptably high background fluorescence of the dense cytoplasm of root meristem cells. Bifunctional imidoester and carbodiimide reagents do not give satisfactory results, either. Fixatives that have produced good results include paraformaldehyde (PFA) with the addition of picric acid or zinc salts or at high pH, a combination of PFA/GA/picric acid, and prefixation in PFA plus a monofunctional imidoester followed by PFA/GA. All of these cross-link the cytoplasm well enough so that cells can withstand isolation procedures, preserve antigenicity, allow antibody penetration and provide good contrast between specific and background fluorescence. The last two fixatives are of particular interest because of the potential they offer for immunoelectron microscopy of densely cytoplasmic, walled cells from tissues.