1. The effects of troponin C (TnC) isoforms on the acidic pH-induced rightward shift in the tension-pCa (-log[Ca2+]) relationship were examined in slow soleus and fast psoas skeletal muscle fibres. Endogenous TnC was partially extracted from skinned single fibres and the extracted fibres were subsequently reconstituted with purified TnC. The pCa producing one-half maximal tension (pCa50) was determined at pH 7.00 and 6.20 in each fibre and then the pH-induced shift in pCa50 (ΔpCa50) was calculated. 2. In control fast fibres which express fast skeletal TnC (sTnC), the ΔpCa50 was 0.64 ± 0.02 pCa units (n = 10), and this increased significantly to 0.78 ± 0.04 pCa units (n = 8) following extraction and reconstitution with cardiac TnC (cTnC). In each fibre, the reconstituted ΔpCa50 was subtracted from the control ΔpCa50 which yielded a significant shift of -0.13 ± 0.05 pCa units (n = 8; P < 0.05). Thus, the pH sensitivity of contraction was increased in the cTnC-reconstituted psoas fibres. 3. In extracted psoas fibres that were reconstituted with fast sTnC the pH sensitivity of contraction was unchanged, indicating that the above effects were related to the TnC isoform and not a non-specific effect of the extraction procedure. 4. In a second series of experiments cTnC was specifically extracted from slow soleus fibres which were subsequently reconstituted with purified fast sTnC. Skeletal TnC reconstituted soleus fibres demonstrated a significant decrease in pH sensitivity. In each fibre, the reconstituted ΔpCa50 (mean, 0.58 ± 0.02 pCa units) was subtracted from the control ΔpCa50 (mean, 0.63 ± 0.02 pCa units) which yielded a significant shift of 0.05 ± 0.01 pCa units (n = 4; P < 0.05). The pH sensitivity was not altered in cTnC-reconstituted soleus fibres (-0.01 ± 0.01. pCa units, n = 4). 5. These findings indicate that TnC isoforms alter the pH sensitivities of contraction in slow and fast skeletal muscle fibres. However, the magnitude of the change in pH sensitivity is muscle lineage dependent, indicating that differential expression of other myofilament protein isoforms, together with TnC, is necessary to confer full pH sensitivity of contraction in striated muscles.