Effects of tilt on high-resolution ADF-STEM imaging

S. E. Maccagnano-Zacher, K. A. Mkhoyan, E. J. Kirkland, J. Silcox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


A study of the effects of small-angle specimen tilt on high-resolution annular dark field images was carried out for scanning transmission electron microscopes with uncorrected and aberration-corrected probes using multislice simulations. The results indicate that even in the cases of specimen tilts of the order of 1{ring operator} a factor of 2 reduction in the contrast of the high-resolution image should be expected. The effect holds for different orientations of the crystal. Calculations also indicate that as the tilted specimen gets thicker the contrast reduction increases. Images simulated with a low-angle annular dark field detector show that tilt effects are more pronounced in this case and suggest that these low-angle detectors can be used to correct specimen tilt during scanning transmission electron microscopes operation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)718-726
Number of pages9
Issue number8
StatePublished - Jul 2008

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the NSF EEC-0117770 and NYSTAR C-020071.


  • ADF imaging
  • Aberration-correction
  • STEM
  • Si
  • Tilt


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