The purpose of this quantitative synthesis of single-case design (SCD) research was to investigate the effects associated with increasing teacher-directed opportunities to respond (TD-OTRs) on student behavioral outcomes in general, as well as differentiated by student response mode, grade level, and SCD research quality ratings. Twelve studies, representing 78 student participants, were reviewed. Increasing TD-OTRs was associated with improved student behavioral outcomes in general, as well as across unison and mixed response modalities and grade levels. Effects differentiated by study quality ratings were associated with modest differences. Results from this review provide quantitative support, suggesting TD-OTRs are an important classroom management strategy and component of effective instruction associated with improved student behavioral outcomes. As rated study quality of the included SCD research studies was variable, it is recommended authors conducting SCD studies adhere to reporting standards such as those included in the current investigation in order to advance knowledge regarding with whom and under what conditions TD-OTRs are most likely to be effective.
- Disruptive behavior
- On-task behavior
- Quantitative synthesis of single-case design research
- School-aged students
- Teacher-directed opportunities to respond