Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on circulating hormone concentrations in pre- and post-menopausal women: A systematic review and meta-analysis

L. Hooper, J. J. Ryder, M. S. Kurzer, J. W. Lampe, M. J. Messina, W. R. Phipps, A. Cassidy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

176 Scopus citations


Background: Hormonal effects of soy and isoflavones have been investigated in numerous trials with equivocal findings. We aimed to systematically assess the effects of soy and isoflavones on circulating estrogen and other hormones in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE (plus reviews and experts) were searched to December 2007. Inclusion of randomized or residential crossover trials of soy or isoflavones for 4 or more weeks on estrogens, SHBG, FSH, LH, progesterone and thyroid hormones in women was assessed independently in duplicate. Six percent of papers assessed were included. Data concerning participants, interventions, outcomes, potential effect modifiers and trial quality characteristics were extracted independently in duplicate. Results: Forty-seven studies (11 of pre-, 35 of post- and 1 of perimenopausal women) were included. In premenopausal women, meta-analysis suggested that soy or isoflavone consumption did not affect primary outcomes estradiol, estrone or SHBG concentrations, but significantly reduced secondary outcomes FSH and LH [by ∼20% using standardized mean difference (SMD), P = 0.01 and 0.05, respectively]. Menstrual cycle length was increased by 1.05 days (95% CI 0.13, 1.97, 10 studies). In post-menopausal women, there were no statistically significant effects on estradiol, estrone, SHBG, FSH or LH, although there was a small statistically non-significant increase in total estradiol with soy or isoflavones (∼14%, SMD, P = 0.07, 21 studies). Conclusions: Isoflavone-rich soy products decrease FSH and LH in premenopausal women and may increase estradiol in post-menopausal women. The clinical implications of these modest hormonal changes remain to be determined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)423-440
Number of pages18
JournalHuman Reproduction Update
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partially funded by the Soy Nutrition Institute, Inc., St Louis, MO, USA. M.J.M. consults for companies that manufacture and/or sell soyfoods, soy protein and isoflavone supplements and is a Scientific Advisory Board Member of the Soy Nutrition Institute.


  • Estradiol
  • Gonadotrophins
  • Isoflavones
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin
  • Soy foods


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