Effects of Regional Climate and BMP Type on Stormwater Nutrient Concentrations in BMPs: A Meta-Analysis

Isabelle R. Horvath, Kun Zhang, Brooke K. Mayer, Anthony J. Parolari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Nutrient treatment performance of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) is highly variable. Improved nutrient management with BMPs requires a better understanding of factors that influence stormwater BMP treatment processes. We conducted a meta-analysis of vegetated BMPs in the International Stormwater BMP Database and compared influent and effluent nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations to quantify the BMP effect on nutrient management across climates. BMP effect on nutrient concentration change was compared between vegetated BMPs in wet and dry climates. We examined paired dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), total phosphorus (TP), and combinations of these analytes as dissolved inorganic ratios and N:P ratios. Meta-analysis with subgroup analysis was used to determine differences between wet and dry climates and among vegetated BMP types. We found that across both wet and dry climates, BMPs leach DIP and TP, increase the fraction of dissolved inorganic P (DIP:TP), and decrease dissolved N:P ratios. Dry-climate BMPs leach DIP and TP more consistently and at a higher magnitude than wet-climate BMPs, and bioretention leaches more DIP than grass strips and swales. These findings generally align with biogeochemical cycling, differences in influent chemistry, and BMP design types and goals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5079-5088
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Mar 28 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.


  • Budyko Index
  • climate
  • green stormwater infrastructure
  • meta-analysis
  • N:P ratio

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Journal Article


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of Regional Climate and BMP Type on Stormwater Nutrient Concentrations in BMPs: A Meta-Analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this