Effects of nicotine gum on prevalence and severity of withdrawal in female cigarette smokers

Dorothy K Hatsukami, Colleen McBride, Phyllis Pirie, Wendy L Hellerstedt, Harry A Lando

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


This study examines the extent to which 2 mg nicotine gum reduces the prevalence and severity of cigarette withdrawal signs and symptoms. The sample was comprised of women who were randomly assigned to chew 2 mg nicotine gum (N = 206) or no nicotine gum (N = 211). Signs and symptoms of withdrawal were assessed at days 2,7, 14, and 28 post-cessation. The results showed a significant effect of 2 mg nicotine compared to no gum at 2 days post-cessation on the prevalence of the following symptoms: anxious/tense, difficulty concentrating, restless, impatient, somatic symptoms, insomnia, increased eating, and drowsiness. There were additional differences between the two groups for the severity of craving for cigarettes, irritable/angry, excessive hunger, and total withdrawal score. Over the course of 28 days post-cessation, significant Group and/or Group x Time interaction effects were found with regard to the severity of signs and symptoms for the following variables: impatient, insomnia, increased eating, irritable, difficulty concentrating, restless, somatic complaints, and total withdrawal score. These results are similar to those obtained from placebo-controlled trials for nicotine gum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)427-440
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of substance abuse
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1991

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Research Supported by NCI Research Grant CA41647 and NIDA Research Grants DA02988 and DA05013 Correspondence and requests for reprints should be sent to Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Universuy of Mmnesota, Department of Psychiatry, Box 392 Mayo, Minneapohs, MN 55455


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