Objective: Methylene blue (MB) is a readily available and affordable substrate that can be used as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The objective of this study was to determine if PDT with MB can downregulate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) related to oral carcinoma. Methods: Cell cultures of oral squamous cell carcinoma (CA-9-22), oral leukoplakia (MSK-Leuk1), and immortalized keratinocytes (Rhek-1A) were photosensitized with MB and treated with PDT. MMP-9 gene expression was interrogated via qRT-PCR. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to confirm the efficacy of MB PDT. Results: MMP-9 gene expression was found to be significantly decreased in oral carcinoma, leukoplakia, and immortalized keratinocytes with use of MB PDT. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that MB-mediated PDT can downregulate MMPs which are critical to the invasion and metastasis of oral cancer. These results suggest that MB PDT could be a clinically significant and cost-effective treatment for oral leukoplakia and carcinoma. Level of Evidence: NA.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors wish to acknowledge the Lions International Medical Research Foundation who provided funding for this project through the Lions 5M Club of Minnesota.
© 2022 The Authors. Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of The Triological Society.
- molecular biology
- oral cavity
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article