Effects of Lean Pork on Microbiota and Microbial-Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide: A Randomized Controlled Non-Inferiority Feeding Trial Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Samitinjaya Dhakal, Zahra Moazzami, Cydne Perry, Moul Dey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Scope: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a microbiota-dependent and primarily animal-protein-derived proatherogenic metabolite. The ecological impact of pork—the most popular animal protein worldwide—on the human microbiome, and in the physiological context of TMAO and other biogenic amines, remains unknown. Poultry being the recommended heart-healthier animal protein, we investigated—if pork intake results in inferior-to-chicken TMAO-response while consuming a diet based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Methods and Results: In a randomized, controlled, all-food-provided, crossover, feeding trial, healthy adults consumed 156 g day−1 of lean-pork or chicken (active-control) as primary proteins. Mixed-effect modeling shows pork as noninferior to chicken for circulating TMAO response and microbiota-generated essential TMAO-precursor—trimethylamine (97.5% CI, n = 36/protein). Markers of lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, serum levels of betaine, choline, L-carnitine, composition and functional-capability of the microbiota, and association of baseline TMAO-levels with TMAO-response (both, r > 0.6, p = 0.0001) are nondistinguishable between the protein groups. TMAO reduction and similar shifts in microbiota and biogenic-amine signatures postdiet in both groups indicate a background DGA-effect. Conclusion: Unlike extrapolating negative results, this study presents noninferiority-testing based evidence. Consuming pork as a predominant protein within an omnivorous DGA-diet does not exacerbate TMAO-response. Results highlight the importance of understanding protein-TMAO interactions within dietary patterns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2101136
JournalMolecular Nutrition and Food Research
Volume66
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research was funded by the National Pork Board (#SA1800547) and by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (#1019557, USDA Hatch). The authors thank West Coast Metabolomics Center at the University of California Davis, for untargeted biogenic amine assays and data generation (NIH U2C ES030158). The funding agencies had no role in the design, data collection, analyses, or manuscript preparation. The authors also acknowledge Kendra Kattelmann, PhD, RDN, LN, FAND, for overseeing activities related to feeding‐trial in the Metabolic Kitchen and Food Laboratory at SDSU, Matthew Vukovich, PhD, for critical reading of the manuscript, and the study participants for providing samples.

Funding Information:
The research was funded by the National Pork Board (#SA1800547) and by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (#1019557, USDA Hatch). The authors thank West Coast Metabolomics Center at the University of California Davis, for untargeted biogenic amine assays and data generation (NIH U2C ES030158). The funding agencies had no role in the design, data collection, analyses, or manuscript preparation. The authors also acknowledge Kendra Kattelmann, PhD, RDN, LN, FAND, for overseeing activities related to feeding-trial in the Metabolic Kitchen and Food Laboratory at SDSU, Matthew Vukovich, PhD, for critical reading of the manuscript, and the study participants for providing samples.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

Keywords

  • controlled-feeding study
  • dietary guidelines for Americans/DGA
  • lean pork
  • microbiota
  • non-inferiority/NI randomized controlled trial
  • trimethylamine-N-oxide/TMAO

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of Lean Pork on Microbiota and Microbial-Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide: A Randomized Controlled Non-Inferiority Feeding Trial Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this