Neutrophils [polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL)] were isolated from 26 Holstein cows in different physiological states (12 ± 1.7 d prepartum, n = 8; 7 ± 0 d postpartum, n = 9; 253 ± 25.2 d postpartum, n = 9) and incubated in vitro for 120. min in a factorial arrangement of treatments with 0, 1.5, or 15 ng/mL of bovine insulin and 0 or 300 μg/mL of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligand 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD). Following the incubations, PMNL functional assays were performed to determine treatment effects on proxies for total, extracellular, and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), neutrophil extracellular trap formation, and phagocytic killing abilities. The ROS production of PMNL collected from cows at 7 d postpartum was reduced compared with that of PMNL from midlactation and prepartum cows, but neutrophil extracellular trap expression was 23 and 36% greater in PMNL from prepartum cows compared with that in PMNL from midlactation and postpartum cows, respectively. Insulin had no effect on PMNL functional assay results. In contrast, TZD inhibited a measurement of total ROS production by 89%, increased extracellular superoxide generation by 43%, but had no effect on the intracellular ROS measured. Interestingly, TZD did not alter the ability of the PMNL to release neutrophil extracellular traps and engulf or kill Staphylococcus aureus. These findings suggest a possible anti-inflammatory effect of TZD that may result in reduced extracellular oxidative damage with maintenance of PMNL antimicrobial activity.