Effects of hexamethonium, phenothiazines, propranolol and ephedrine on acetylcholinesterase carbamylation by physostigmine, aldicarb and carbaryl: Interaction between the active site and the functionally distinct peripheral sites in acetylcholinesterase

Ashok K Singh, Dina Spassova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Physostigmine, aldicarb and carbaryl were potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The physostigmine inhibited AChE fluoresced at 300 nm excitation and 500 nm emission wavelengths, but the aldicarb and carbaryl inhibited enzyme did not. This suggests that the carbamylated active center is not the fluorescing site in AChE. The fluorescence intensity of physostigmine inhibited AChE decreased with increasing the substrate (acetylthiocholine) concentration, thus indicating that physostigmine binding to the active site is essential for the development of fluorescence. Thus, the physostigmine-inhibited AChE fluoresces due to the binding of trimethylpyrrolo[2,3-b]indol (TMPI) moiety, formed by the hydrolysis of physostigmine, to a peripheral site in AChE. The fluorescence intensity of the physostigmine-inhibited enzyme decreased when the inhibited-enzyme was dialyzed for either 30 min that poorly reactivated the enzyme or 180 min that fully reactivated the enzyme. This suggests that dialysis dissociates the AChE-TMP1 complex much faster than it reactivates the carbamylated AChE. Ephedrine, propranolol and phenothiazines including trifluoparazine (TPZ) caused non competitive inhibition, while hexamethonium caused an uncompetitive inhibition of AChE activity. TPZ, upon binding with AChE, formed a fluorescent TPZ-enzyme complex. The fluorescence intensity of TPZ AChE complex was effectively decreased by ephedrine, but not by propranolol or hexamethonium. This indicates that TPZ and ephedrine bind to the same site in AChE which is different from the site/or sites to which propranolol or hexamethonium bind. Hexamethonium protected AChE from inhibition by carbamates and decreased the fluorescence intensity of the physostigmine-inhibited AChE. Phenothiazines and ephedrine did not modulate the enzyme inhibition or the fluorescence intensity of the physostigmine-inhibited AChE. Propranolol and TPZ potentiated the enzyme inhibition and increased the fluorescence intensity in the presence of physostigmine. These compounds, however, did not affect the inhibition of AChE by carbaryl or aldicarb. Ephedrine blocked the effects of TPZ, but did not alter the effects of propranolol on physostigmine-inhibited AChE. AChE, therefore, contains multiple peripheral binding sites which, upon binding to specific ligands, transduce differential signals to the active center.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-105
Number of pages9
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Pharmacology Toxicology and Endocrinology
Volume119
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998

Keywords

  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Active site
  • Carbamates
  • Carbamylation
  • Fluorescence
  • Peripheral site

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