Smoking is a leading cause of lung cancer, accounting for 81% of lung cancer cases. Tobacco smoke contains over 5000 compounds, of which more than 70 have been classified as human carcinogens. Of the many tobacco smoke constituents, 1,3-butadiene (BD) has a high cancer risk index due to its tumorigenic potency and its abundance in cigarette smoke. The carcinogenicity of BD has been attributed to the formation of several epoxide metabolites, of which 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) is the most toxic and mutagenic. DEB is formed by two oxidation reactions carried out by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, mainly CYP2E1. Glutathione-S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) facilitates the conjugation of DEB to glutathione as the first step of its detoxification and subsequent elimination via the mercapturic acid pathway. Human biomonitoring studies have revealed a strong association between GSTT1 copy number and urinary concentrations of BD-mercapturic acids, suggesting that it plays an important role in the metabolism of BD. To determine the extent that GSTT1 genotype affects the susceptibility of individuals to the toxic and genotoxic properties of DEB, GSTT1 negative and GSTT1 positive HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines were treated with DEB, and the extent of apoptosis and micronuclei (MN) formation was assessed. These toxicological end points were compared to the formation of DEB-GSH conjugates and 1,4-bis-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol (bis-N7G-BD) DNA-DNA cross-links. GSTT1 negative cell lines were more sensitive to DEB-induced apoptosis as compared to GSTT1 positive cell lines. Consistent with the protective effect of GSH conjugation against DEB-derived apoptosis, GSTT1 positive cell lines formed significantly more DEB-GSH conjugate than GSTT1 negative cell lines. However, GSTT1 genotype did not affect formation of MN or bis-N7G-BD cross-links. These results indicate that GSTT1 genotype significantly influences BD metabolism and acute toxicity.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by U.S. National Cancer Institute Grants P01 CA-138338 (L.P. and N.T.) and R01 CA-100670 (N.T.). The Flow Cytometry Resource at the University of Minnesota is funded in part by P30 CA077598.
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