An experiment was carried out to verify the relationship between the heat production associated with food intake and environmental temperature. Four laying hens were trained to eat two meals per day and were kept under artificial illumination with dark, dim and light periods. 2. Metabolic heat production was measured using two open-circuit respiratory chambers. Abdominal temperatures were measured, using thermocouples, at environmental temperatures of 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36°C and at food intakes of 90, 60, 30 and 0 g/d. 3. The rate of heat production was dependent on both environmental temperature and food intake. Increasing environmental temperature resulted in a decrease in total metabolic rate at any food intake, indicating that heat production associated with food intake was not directly linked with thermoregulation at low environmental temperatures. 4. Abdominal temperature varied little with either food intake or environmental temperature below 28°C. Above 28°C, abdominal temperature increased with both environmental temperature and quantity of food, indicating that the heat production associated with food intake adds to the heat load at high environmental temperatures. 5. Both heat production and abdominal temperature declined with decreasing light intensity and increased before feeding time. These effects were considered to result from changes in physical activity. All rights reserved.