Objective: To investigate the effects of power factors, need for achievement, and empowerment on commitment, loyalty, identification, and job turnover intention among pharmacists. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: United States. Participants: 447 licensed pharmacists nationwide. Intervention: Self-administered questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures: Structural equation modeling was used to assess the fit of the theoretical model and examine the effects of empowerment on pharmacists' behaviors within their organizations using pharmacists' self-reports. Results: An overall response rate of 42.2% was obtained. The test of the hypothesized model using structural equation modeling resulted in a satisfactory fit. The effects of power factors and need for achievement on psychological empowerment (γ11 = .75, γ12 = .27) and structural empowerment (γ21 = .81, γ22 = .20) were examined. Also, the effects of psychological empowerment and structural empowerment on loyalty (β31 = .05, β32 = .69), commitment (β41 = -.09, β42 = .92), and identification (β51 = .05, β52 = .78) were analyzed. Finally, the effects of loyalty (β63 = -.24), commitment (β64 = -.74), and identification (β65 = .35) on job turnover intention were assessed. Conclusion: Kanter's theory, which maintains that structures within organizations have an impact on organizational behaviors, was supported by our findings. Pharmacists' organizational behaviors such as commitment, loyalty, identification, and job turnover intention are influenced by structural empowerment. Given the pharmacist supply-and-demand imbalances of the past few years, organizations should make every effort to retain the pharmacists currently in their employ.
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- Employee pharmacists
- Job satisfaction
- Job turnover intention
- Kanter's theory