In vivo and in vitro 3 x 2 factorial experiments were conducted concurrently to evaluate the incorporation of 0, 15, or 30% sugar beet pulp (SBP) as an energy source in diets fed to growing Holstein steers with either soybean meal (SBM) or alcohol-treated, defatted soybean flakes (ATSBF) as primary supplemental protein sources. Three groups of 42 Holstein steers each were fed six different diets from 54 kg initial BW to 320 kg in three experimental periods. There were no overall SBP level x protein source interactions (P greater than .05). Beet pulp level tended to decrease ADG (linear, P = .05) and increase feed/gain (linear, P less than .05) and DMI (quadratic, P less than .05). Each grower diet was used in a substrate for ruminal microbial metabolism in six dual-flow, continuous-culture fermenters. Organic matter and carbohydrate digestion were similar (P greater than .05) among diets. Increasing dietary levels of SBP caused a concomitant increase (P less than .05) in acetate and decrease (P less than .05) in butyrate and isobutyrate concentrations. Beet pulp level x protein source interactions (P less than .05) were observed for CP degradation, ammonia and nonammonia N, and dietary N flow. Crude protein degradation was higher (P less than .05) for the 0% SBP with SBM diet (81.3%) than for the 30% SBP with ATSBF diet (64.4%). Efficiency of bacterial synthesis was similar (P greater than .05) among diets. Results indicated that SBP is an effective dietary energy source for high-energy grower diets at 15 or 30% of the DM but may cause a decrease in some performance traits. There were no nutritional benefits of using ATSBF vs SBM as the supplemental N source.