Effects of detailed geometry and real fluid thermodynamics on Spray G atomization

Marco Arienti, Everett A. Wenzel, Brandon A. Sforzo, Christopher F. Powell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


We present recent results toward the quantification of spray characteristics at engine conditions for an eight-hole counter-bored (stepped) GDI injector – Spray G in the ECN denomination. This computational study is characterized by two novel features: the detailed description of a real injector's internal surfaces via tomographic reconstruction; and a general equation of state that represents the thermodynamic properties of homogeneous liquid-vapor mixtures. The combined level-set moment-of-fluid approach, coupled to an embedded boundary formulation for moving solid walls, makes it possible to seamlessly connect the injector's internal flow to the spray. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) discussed here presents evidence of partial hydraulic flipping and, during the closing transient, string cavitation. Results are validated by measurements of spray density profiles and droplet size distribution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3277-3285
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Combustion Institute


  • Computed tomography
  • Drop sizes
  • Homogeneous equilibrium model
  • Spray atomization
  • String cavitation


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