We examined the mean effect of teachers’ use of data-based individualization (DBI) on the performance of students with intensive learning needs across academic areas and factors influencing the effects of DBI on student achievement. A total of 57 effect sizes from 14 studies were categorized into two comparisons: DBI Only (comparisons between DBI and a business-as-usual control) and DBI Plus (comparisons in which DBI implementers had access to additional information on student performance while they implemented DBI, compared to a control). The mean effect of DBI Only on student performance was g = 0.37; the mean effect of DBI Plus was g = 0.38. Differential effects of DBI were found depending on the nature of CBM tasks, frequency of CBM administration, and type and frequency of supports provided to teachers. Findings support the use of DBI to enhance student outcomes across academic areas.