BACKGROUND: Seed mixture strategy can guarantee the compliance of planting non-Bt crops to host the susceptible insects for resistance management. However, pollen movement between Bt and non-Bt corn in the mixed plantings could reduce the efficacy of this strategy for ear-feeding insects. Few studies have evaluated the effects of cross-pollination among non-Bt and pyramided Bt corn in seed mixtures on the resistance development of insects possessing multiple resistances. Here, we provided the first study to investigate whether cross-pollination in mixed plantings of pyramided Bt corn producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 would increase the dominance of resistance of dual-gene resistant populations of Helicoverpa zea, a target of pyramided Bt corn and cotton in the USA. RESULTS: We compared the survival and development of susceptible, dual-gene resistant (resistance to both Cry1 and Cry2 proteins) and heterozygous genotypes of H. zea in the laboratory on non-Bt and pyramided Bt corn ears collected from mixed plantings and structured plantings in the field. We found higher fitness for F1 heterozygous insects than for the susceptible insects of H. zea on both pyramided Bt corn and non-Bt corn in the mixed plantings. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that cross-pollination in mixed plantings will significantly increase the dominance of resistance by supporting survival of heterozygous insects for dual-gene resistant populations of H. zea, and therefore accelerate evolution of resistance to pyramided Bt crops.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Biotechnology Risk Assessment grant no. 2017‐33522‐27090/project accession no. 1013740 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.
© 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.
- Bacillus thuringiensis
- Helicoverpa zea
- seed mixture
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article