Effects of chronic alcohol drinking on receptor-binding, internalization, and degradation of human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein gp120 in hepatocytes

Ashok K Singh, Yin Jiang, Shveta Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Although alcohol drinking increases susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, possible mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol are not yet known. Since the HIV envelope protein gp120 plays a key role in progression of HIV infection, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity and degradation of gp120 in hepatocytes isolated from liver of alcohol-preferring rats drinking either 15% ethanol in water or pure water for 70 days. The hypothesis was that alcohol drinking augmented the toxicity, but suppressed degradation of gp120. Hepatocytes from water-drinking rats (C-cells) or ethanol-drinking rats (Et-cells) were treated with laptacystin, anti-CD4 antibodies, CCR5 antagonist, or mannose, followed by [125I]gp120 or native gp120. At predetermined intervals, control (C) and ethanol exposed (Et) cells were analyzed for toxicity and degradation of gp120. In C-cells, [125I]gp120 binding and internalization peaked within 5-45 min and remained elevated for up to 10 h and then decreased gradually. In Et-cells, [125I]gp120 binding peaked comparably to C-cells, but the binding remained to the peak level throughout the experimental period. C-cells exhibited the lysosomal/ubiquitin-mediated degradation of intracellular gp120, resulting in released gp120 fragments into the incubation medium that suppressed gp120-CD4 binding, improved cell viability, and inhibited gp120-induced apoptosis. Ethanol drinking suppressed gp120 degradation in and release of gp120 fragments from hepatocytes. The incubation medium of Et-cells did not suppress gp120-CD4 binding or the gp120-mediated apoptosis in hepatocytes. Thus, chronic alcohol drinking augmented the adverse effects of gp120 possibly by suppressing its degradation in hepatocytes. The present observation also suggests that a number of CCR5 or ubiquitin-based therapeutic drugs may not be effective in suppressing HIV infection in alcohol-drinking subjects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)591-606
Number of pages16
JournalAlcohol
Volume41
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007

Keywords

  • Alcoholism
  • Apoptosis
  • CD4
  • Envelope proteins
  • Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)
  • Ubiquitin
  • gp120

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