Effects of bitterness, roughness, PROP taster status, and fungiform papillae density on bread acceptance

Alyssa Bakke, Zata Vickers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to determine how bitterness, roughness, color, perceived 6- n-propylthiouracil (PROP) intensity, and fungiform papillae density affect bread liking. To accomplish this, 78 subjects rated their liking for bread samples that were manipulated to vary independently in bitterness (provided by added wheat germ extract), roughness (provided by added bleached bran), and darkness (provided by added caramel color). The bitterness from added germ extract decreased bread liking. The roughness from the bleached bran increased bread liking; this increase was larger for subjects with higher fungiform papillae densities and was larger for subjects less sensitive to PROP.Added color decreased liking for subjects who preferred refined bread, but it increased liking for subjects who preferred whole wheat bread.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)317-325
Number of pages9
JournalFood Quality and Preference
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Cargill Inc. for donated flour. This research has been supported in part by the Sensory Center in the Department of Food Science and Nutrition at the University of Minnesota, the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Joseph J. Warthesen 21st Century Fellowship.


  • 6-n-Propylthiouracil
  • Bitterness
  • Bread
  • Fungiform papillae
  • PROP
  • Refined wheat
  • Whole grain
  • Whole wheat


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