Effects of bisphenol a on fecundity, egg hatchability, and juvenile growth of marisa cornuarietis

Valery E. Forbes, Ryan Warbritton, John Aufderheide, Nelly Van Der Hoeven, Norbert Caspers

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Recent work on the snail Marisa cornuarietis has claimed to show endocrine disruption in response to bisphenol A (BPA). The present experimental design was optimized to detect effects of BPA on fecundity, egg hatchability, and juvenile growth, with an emphasis on reproduction, since previous studies suggested this to be a sensitive endpoint. No differences in eggs/female/month between unexposed snails and snails exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1, 1, 25, and 640 μg BPA/L during six months of exposure were found. No effect of BPA on the percentage of eggs hatching successfully was found, as was no difference in time to hatching between the control and any BPA treatment. We observed a significant decrease in female growth and a marginal effect on female wet weight in the 640-μg/L treatment compared to the control and a significant increase in male growth rate and a marginal increase in male wet weight in the 1-μg/L treatment compared to the control. However, a much greater proportion of the variability in juvenile growth was explained by variation between pairs and between siblings from the same pair than by BPA treatment. We conclude that effects of BPA in the nominal exposure range 0.1 to 640 μg/L (measured range 0.062-696 μg/L) are unlikely to be of significance for field populations of this species. An additional adult fecundity trial at 22°C (in contrast to all other experiments that were conducted at 25°C) found no evidence to suggest that snails are more sensitive to BPA at the lower temperature, as has been previously claimed. The present results indicate that the sensitivity of M. cornuarietis to BPA is similar to that of other aquatic invertebrates for which data are available.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2332-2340
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2008


  • Endocrine disruption
  • Life history
  • Mollusk
  • Reproduction
  • Risk assessment

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