This study evaluated the production advantages of the strategic anthelmintic treatment of both lambs and ewes in an area endemic for gastro-intestinal nematodes, lungworms and liver flukes. The liver fluke infections were generally chronic. The lambs were treated with albendazole (SmithKline Beecham), fenbendazole (Hoechst Roussel) or a vitamin supplement and their weight gains were followed over the next 7 months. The control group, which received a vitamin supplement only, gained 6·67 kg from July to January. The group that received fenbendazole, an anthelmintic with no activity against liver flukes, gained 10·42 kg over the study period. The third group which received albendazole, an anthelmintic with efficacy against liver flukes, gained 13·07 kg over the same period. Lamb deaths apparently due to liver flukes were 12, 4, and zero for the control, fenbendazole and albendazole groups, respectively. Similar advantages were observed in the ewes. Deaths were 16, 8, and zero in the control, fenbendazole and albendazole groups, respectively. The lambing rate in the control groupswas significantly lower than that in either of the 2 treated groups. The number of services per conception was significantly lower in the albendazole treated group than that in either of the other groups. These studies demonstrated the advantages of anthelmintic treatment in sheep in a helminth endemic area. While removing gastro-intestinal nematodes and lungworms improved production, the additional removal of liver flukes enhanced production gains as well as reducing deaths.