Effects of 3D vs 2D interfaces and product-coordination methods

Ahmad Saquib Sina, Juanjuan Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of product display based on colour, discount and brand on retail pleasure, arousal, flow, perceived merchandise quality, time spent, satisfaction and patronage intentions in both 3D and 2D interfaces. This study uses the flow theory and stimulus-organism-response framework to understand the effects of product coordination methods and interface dimensions on consumers’ emotional, cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This study conducted a 2 (interface: 3D and 2D) × 3 (product coordination method: colour, discount and brand) between-subjects experimental design. The coordination of display refers to the way products are arranged based on similar properties, such as similar colour, discount or brand. 3D stores were designed using Mockshop, a 3D virtual retailing software. A total of 144 US female college students from various universities participated in the study. Findings: The findings showed that the 3D interface produced higher flow, satisfaction, time spent and patronage intention than the 2D interface. Also, among the six display scenarios, participants who were in the colour-coordinated 3D store showed the highest levels of emotional, cognitive and behavioural outcomes except for retail pleasure and arousal. Originality/value: This study investigates product display based on colour, discount and brand in both 3D and 2D interfaces. Although product coordination methods have been tested in 3D stores in previous studies, they have not been compared with their effects in the 2D interface such as online shopping sites. Therefore, this study fills in this gap in the literature, which can guide retailers in making the right decisions for visuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)855-871
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Retail and Distribution Management
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 7 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited.


  • 2D interface
  • 3D interface
  • Mockshop
  • Product coordination


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