Objectives: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. quarantine and isolation) are used to mitigate and control viral infectious disease, but their effectiveness has not been well studied. For COVID-19, disease control efforts will rely on non-pharmaceutical interventions until pharmaceutical interventions become widely available, while non-pharmaceutical interventions will be of continued importance thereafter. Methods: This rapid evidence-based review provides both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the effectiveness of social distancing non-pharmaceutical interventions on disease outcomes. Literature was retrieved from MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and pre-print databases (BioRxiv.org, MedRxiv.org, and Wellcome Open Research). Results: Twenty-eight studies met inclusion criteria (n = 28). Early, sustained, and combined application of various non-pharmaceutical interventions could mitigate and control primary outbreaks and prevent more severe secondary or tertiary outbreaks. The strategic use of non-pharmaceutical interventions decreased incidence, transmission, and/or mortality across all interventions examined. The pooled attack rates for no non-pharmaceutical intervention, single non-pharmaceutical interventions, and multiple non-pharmaceutical interventions were 42% (95% confidence interval = 30% – 55%), 29% (95% confidence interval = 23% – 36%), and 22% (95% confidence interval = 16% – 29%), respectively. Conclusion: Implementation of multiple non-pharmaceutical interventions at key decision points for public health could effectively facilitate disease mitigation and suppression until pharmaceutical interventions become available. Dynamics around R0 values, the susceptibility of certain high-risk patient groups to infection, and the probability of asymptomatic cases spreading disease should be considered.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||SAGE Open Medicine|
|State||Published - 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research study was supported by IBM Watson Health (no grant number to disclose). ® ®
The authors thank Winnie Felix and Courtney VanHouten for helping with searching for relevant papers, and Dr Van C. Willis for his critical reading and support for the completion of the revisions. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research study was supported by IBM? Watson Health? (no grant number to disclose).
© The Author(s) 2021.
- influenza pandemic 1918–1919
- non-pharmaceutical interventions
- patient isolation