Sixty women and 55 men recruited from two sources participated in a weight reduction program with financial contracts. Experimental conditions were: (a) monetary commitment control, (b) contracts with constant refunds for weight loss, and (c) contracts with increasing refunds for weight loss. During 1 year of followup participants received one of two maintenance procedures or none. Increasing refunds produced greater initial weight losses than constant refunds, which were superior to monetary commitment-only. Gender and recruitment source were not significant short-term, but women were more successful than men in maintaining weight losses. Neither maintenance strategy effectively prevented weight gain during follow-up. Program attendance was highlighted as a mediating behavior predictive of outcome.