Effect of the inoculation site of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) on the skin fold thickness increase in cattle from officially tuberculosis free and tuberculosis-infected herds

Carmen Casal, Julio Alvarez, Javier Bezos, Harrison Quick, Alberto Díez-Guerrier, Beatriz Romero, Jose L. Saez, Emmanouil Liandris, Alejandro Navarro, Andrés Perez, Lucas Domínguez, Lucía D. de Juan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking.Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)86-92
Number of pages7
JournalPreventive Veterinary Medicine
Volume121
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

Keywords

  • Bovine PPD
  • Bovine tuberculosis
  • Intradermal inoculation
  • Tuberculin test

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