Microwave drying is a promising and effective way to drying and upgrading lignite. The influence of temperature (100-140 °C) and microwave power levels (500-800 W) on thin-layer drying characteristics of Zhaotong lignite under microwave irradiation were investigated. Fourteen thin-layer drying models were used to analyze the microwave drying process while six thin-layer drying models were used to analyze the hot-air drying process. The microwave drying processes at all temperature (100-140 °C) or low microwave power levels (500-700 W) exhibited four periods: a warm-up period, a short constant period, the first and second falling rate period, while one falling rate period was found during hot-air drying. The effective diffusion coefficient of lignite were calculated and it increases with increasing temperature and microwave power levels. During microwave drying, the two-term exponential model is the most suitable model for all applied conditions, while the Modified Page model is the most suitable model to describe the hot-air drying experiments. The apparent activation energy were determined from Arrhenius equation and the values for the first and second falling rate period are 3.349 and 20.808 kJ·mol -1 at different temperatures, while they are 13.455 and 19.580 W·g -1 at different microwave power levels. This implies the apparent activation energy is higher during the second falling rate period, which suggest that the dewatering of absorbed water is more difficult than capillary water. The value of apparent activation energy in hot-air drying is between the first and second falling rate period of microwave drying. Results indicate that microwave drying is more suitable to dewatering free water and capillary water of lignite.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge the financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) (no. 51504217), the National Natural Science Foundation of China-Yunnan Joint Fund Project of China (no. U1402274), the Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province (CN) (2015FD031), and the Science Research Foundation of Yunnan Provincial Education Department (no. 2018JS306).
© 2019 by the authors.
- Apparent activation energy
- Effective diffusion coefficient
- Hot-air drying kinetics
- Microwave drying kinetics