The effect of collection technique, anticoagulant, pH, glucose, and temperature on in vitro granulocyte function were studied after 24 hr of storage in the liquid state. Collection by CL did not adversely affect granulocyte function, however, cells collected by FL had accelerated loss of bactericidal activity and chemotactic response. Citrate anticoagulants provided better maintenance of bacteridical activity, NBT reduction, and chemotactic response than heparin, EDTA, and ion-exchange anticoagulants. Chemiluminescence was well maintained when the initial pH of the preservative solution (CPD plasma) was between 6.5 and 8.0 but maintenance of chemotaxis required pH of 7.0-7.5. Glucose concentrations of 80-1000 mg/dl provided adequate maintenance of chemiluminescence and chemotaxis. Bacterial killing was well maintained by storage at either 1-6 or 20-24 °C. Storage at 1-6 °C caused decreased chemotaxis, decreased ability of granulocytes to adhere and spread on a foreign surface, and a decreased intravascular recovery and shortened half-life after transfusion. Although short-term liquid storage may be practical, at present, granulocytes should be transfused as soon as possible after collection.