Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the second largest indication for lung transplantation worldwide. Average 90-day mortality rates for this procedure are 22%. It is unclear what factors predispose patients with IPF to this increased early posttransplant mortality. Pulmonary hypertension may increase the risk of development of early posttransplant complications through several mechanisms. We examined the effect of secondary pulmonary hypertension on 90-day mortality after lung transplantation for IPF. Methods: An International Society for Heart and Lung Transplant Registry cohort study of 830 patients with IPF transplanted from January 1995 to June 2002 was undertaken. Risk factors were assessed individually and adjusted for confounding by a multivariable logistic regression model. Results: In the univariate analysis, pulmonary hypertension and bilateral-lung transplantation were significant risk factors for increased 90-day mortality. Multivariate analysis confirmed that mean pulmonary artery pressure and bilateral procedure remain independent risk factors after adjustment for potential confounders. Recipient age, ischemia time, cytomegalovirus status mismatch, and donor age were not independent risk factors for early mortality. Conclusions: Bilateral-lung transplantation carries a greater risk of early mortality than single-lung transplantation for IPF. Increasing pulmonary artery pressure is a risk factor for death after single-lung transplantation in IPF. Mean pulmonary artery pressure should be included in the overall risk assessment of patients with IPF evaluated for lung transplantation.
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