Effect of porcine parvovirus vaccination on the development of PMWS in segregated early weaned pigs coinfected with type 2 porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus

T. Opriessnig, M. Fenaux, S. Yu, R. B. Evans, D. Cavanaugh, J. M. Gallup, F. J. Pallares, E. L. Thacker, K. M. Lager, X. J. Meng, P. G. Halbur

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75 Scopus citations

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to determine if coinfection of segregated early weaned (SEW) pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) induces an increase in the incidence of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) compared to singular PCV2 infection, and to determine if vaccination against PPV protects pigs against PMWS associated with PCV2/PPV coinfection in SEW pigs. Seventy, 3-week-old, SEW pigs were randomly assigned to one of the five groups. Pigs in group 1 (n=14) served as the negative controls, group 2 pigs (n=14) were inoculated with PCV2, group 3 pigs (n=12) were inoculated with PPV, groups 4 (n=16) and 5 (n=14) pigs were inoculated with both PCV2 and PPV. Pigs in groups 1-3 and 5 were vaccinated with two doses of a killed parvovirus-leptospira-erysipelothrix (PLE) vaccine prior to inoculation. The PCV2/PPV-coinfected pigs (groups 4 and 5) had significantly (P<0.05) higher and more persistent fevers than the singular PCV2-infected pigs. One pig in each of the coinfected groups developed clinical disease (fever, respiratory disease, jaundice, weight loss) consistent with PMWS. Lymphoid depletion was significantly (P<0.05) more severe in the dually-infected pigs at 42 days post-inoculation (DPI). Vaccinated, coinfected pigs (group 5) remained viremic significantly (P<0.05) longer and had higher copy numbers of genomic PCV2 DNA in sera at 28, 35, and 42 DPI compared to the unvaccinated coinfected pigs (group 4). PPV-viremia was detected only in the unvaccinated group 4 pigs. PLE-vaccination prevented PPV-viremia but did not prevent clinical PMWS or reduce the severity of lymphoid depletion in PCV2/PPV-coinfected pigs. Evidence of increased incidence of clinical PMWS due to vaccination was not observed in this model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)209-220
Number of pages12
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Volume98
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 5 2004
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Ann Vorwald for preparing the PPV-inoculum and for helpful advice with PPV serology. We also thank Pete Thomas and Marlin Hoogland for assistance with animal work. The study was funded by a grant from Pfizer Animal Health, Inc.

Keywords

  • Porcine circovirus type 2
  • Porcine parvovirus
  • Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome
  • Vaccination

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