Effect of pooling udder skin wipes on the detection of influenza A virus in preweaning pigs

Anne C. de Lara, Jorge Garrido-Mantilla, Gustavo Lopez-Moreno, My Yang, David E.S.N. Barcellos, Montserrat Torremorell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Influenza A virus (IAV) active surveillance in pigs prior to weaning is commonly conducted by collecting individual samples, mostly nasal swabs. Recently, the use of udder skin wipes collected from lactating sows was identified as an effective sampling method to indicate IAV status of suckling piglets prior to weaning. However, there is limited information on the effect of pooling multiple udder wipes on the ability to detect IAV. We evaluated the effect of pooling 3, 5, or 10 udder wipes on the sensitivity of detecting IAV and compared the results with testing the wipes individually. The likelihood of detecting positive udder wipes decreased with pooling when the initial positive cycle threshold value was ≥31.5; pooling of up to 3 samples could be performed without affecting sensitivity significantly. Our results support pooling of udder skin wipes to conduct surveillance of IAV in pigs prior to weaning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-135
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Issue number1
Early online dateAug 17 2021
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Our study was funded by the Swine Disease Eradication Center of the University of Minnesota.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s).


  • influenza A virus
  • pigs
  • pooling
  • surveillance
  • udder wipes

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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