Effect of plant-derived antimicrobials against multidrug-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in ground Turkey

Grace Dewi, Shijinaraj Manjankattil, Claire Peichel, Shiliang Jia, Divek Valsala Devi Thankappan Nair, Zata Vickers, Timothy J. Johnson, Carol Cardona, Sally Noll, Anup Kollanoor Johny

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Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) is a highly invasive human pathogen for which turkeys can serve as reservoir hosts. Colonization of turkeys with SH may result in potential contamination and is a greater challenge to prevent in comminuted products. Antimicrobial efficacy of 3 GRAS-status plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), lemongrass essential oil (LG), citral (CIT), and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), against SH in ground turkey, a comminuted product implicated in several outbreaks, was evaluated in this study. Ground turkey samples inoculated with ∼3.50 log 10 CFU/g of a three-strain SH cocktail were treated with either LG, CIT, or TC at either 0.5, 1, or 2% (vol/wt). Samples were stored at 4°C, and bacterial enumeration was performed on d 0, 1, 3, and 5. Appropriate controls were included alongside all treatments. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to evaluate the direct impact of the PDAs against SH in vitro. Appearance and aroma difference testing of raw patties was also performed for select treatments with trained sensory panelists. Treatment with 2% TC yielded a 2.5 log 10 CFU/g reduction by d 1 and complete reduction by d 5 (P < 0.05). By d 3, 2% CIT and 2% LG resulted in SH reduction of at least 1.7 log 10 CFU/g (P < 0.05). Addition of 1% TC resulted in reduction of at least 1.8 log 10 CFU/g by d 3 (P < 0.05). Participants could distinguish PDA-treated raw patties by aroma. Most participants (7/11) could not distinguish patties treated with 0.5% TC based on appearance. Microscopic images indicate that all PDAs resulted in disruption of the SH membrane. Results of the present study indicate that the three tested PDAs, LG, CIT, and TC are effective against SH in ground turkey, indicating their potential use as interventions to mitigate Salmonella contamination in comminuted turkey products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101581
JournalPoultry science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the Minnesota Turkey Research and Promotion Council (MTRPC) Grant ( 2018-02 ), the Minnesota Agricultural Experimentation Station (Projects MIN-16-120 and 18-138), and USDA NIFA Hatch Grant (Accession#1016910) for the financial support of this research. The authors would also like to acknowledge the Minnesota Discovery, Research and InnoVation Economy (MnDRIVE) graduate fellowship awarded to G. Dewi for professional training during her graduate research

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors


  • Salmonella
  • antibacterial
  • citral
  • lemongrass
  • trans-cinnamaldehyde

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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