Fifty-three primiparous sows were used to study the effects of a high-energy, fat-supplemented diet on sow lactation and rebreeding performance. Sows received either a low [Lo, 12.5 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/d] or high (Hi, 16.0 Mcal ME/d) energy sorghum-soybean diet during a 28-d lactation. At weaning, sows were randomly allotted, within lactation treatment, to a low (lo, 5.54 Mcal ME/d) or high (hi, 9.61 Mcal ME/d) energy sorghum-soybean diet until the day of first postweaning estrus. Primiparous sows fed Lo weaned larger (P less than .05) litters than sows fed Hi; however, average pig weight was not affected by lactation treatments. Primiparous sows fed Hi had more backfat at weaning (P less than .01) than Lo sows. In contrast, sow weight was not affected by dietary treatments. Neither lactation nor rebreeding treatments influenced days to rebreeding; however, an interaction (P less than .01) was observed. Mean days from weaning to rebreeding for Lolo, Lohi, Hilo and Hihi sows were 10.0, 7.6, 6.9 and 17.1, respectively. Forty sows were maintained on the same dietary treatments during their second parity. Sows receiving Lo during their second parity farrowed and weaned more (P less than .05) pigs than Hi sows. Multiparous sows fed Hi nursed heavier (P less than .05) pigs on d 21 of lactation and at weaning compared with Lo sows. Sows fed Hi were heavier (P less than .05) and had more (P less than .01) backfat at weaning of their second litter compared to Lo sows. Days to postweaning estrus were not affected by lactation or rebreeding diets. Mean length of the second parity rebreeding interval for Lolo, Lohi, Hilo and Hihi sows was 6.2, 10.2, 7.0 and 10.5 d, respectively. These results suggest that feeding levels during lactation of 12.5 Mcal ME/d or higher supported adequate rebreeding performance. Postweaning feeding levels did not influence days to first estrus. Feeding a high energy diet continuously throughout the lactation and rebreeding phases in primiparous sows may lengthen the postweaning interval to estrus.