Effect of Holstein genotype on ex-vivo interleukin-1β response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and heat-killed Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Effects of Holstein genotype on interleukin-1β response were assessed by ex-vivo stimulation of whole blood with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), or sonicated, heat-killed Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Holstein genotypes were unselected Holsteins (UH, n = 14) not subjected to selection pressures since the mid-1960s and contemporary Holsteins (CH, n = 13). Milk yield of UH and CH cows differ by more than 4500 kg/lactation. Whole blood was mixed with 0.01 µg LPS, 10 µg LTA or 2.5 × 106 CFU of sonicated, heat-killed E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, S. aureus, S. dysgalactiae, or S. uberis per mL of blood and incubated (4 h, 37 °C). Plasma IL-1β was quantified by ELISA and log10-transformed concentrations analyzed with a multivariate linear mixed effects model. Responses to bacteria were greater than responses to LPS or LTA. Responses to LPS, LTA and the Gram-negative stimulants were greater in UH than in CH cows while responses to the Gram-positive bacteria did not differ between Holstein genotypes. In both genotypes, strong correlations were detected among IL-1β responses to the Gram-negative stimulants and to LTA. There were strong correlations among IL-1β responses to the Gram-positive bacteria in CH cows but only between S. aureus and S. dysgalactiae in UH cows. The IL-1β response to S. uberis was highly correlated with responses to all of the Gram-negative stimulants in CH cows but only with E. coli in the UH cows. The reduced immune response could make contemporary cows more susceptible to infection by Gram-negative bacteria. Results confirm selection practices since the mid-1960s have altered immune response in the Holstein, at least to Gram-negative bacteria, and validate the need for additional studies to further evaluate the impacts of these selection practices on immune function in contemporary Holsteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110573
JournalVeterinary immunology and immunopathology
StatePublished - Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station , project MIN‐18–125, and by a grant from the Rapid Agricultural Response Fund program of the Minnesota State Legislature and Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station . Cole was supported by appropriated project 8042–31000–002–00-D , “Improving Dairy Animals by Increasing Accuracy of Genomic Prediction, Evaluating New Traits, and Redefining Selection Goals”, of ARS , USDA.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Heat-killed bacteria
  • Milk yield genotype
  • ex-vivo interleukin-1β response

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of Holstein genotype on ex-vivo interleukin-1β response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and heat-killed Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this