Effect of fluoroquinolones and macrolides on eradication and resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Melinda M. Pettigrew, Brian T. Tsuji, Janneane F. Gent, Yong Kong, Patricia N. Holden, Sanjay Sethi, Timothy F. Murphy

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25 Scopus citations


Little is known about the effect of antibiotics on eradication of carriage and development of resistance in Haemophilus influenzae in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our goals were to assess antibiotic susceptibilities, prevalence of resistance genes, and development of resistance in H. influenzae and to evaluate the effect of macrolide and fluoroquinolone administration on H. influenzae eradication. Data were from a 15-year longitudinal study of COPD. Genome sequence data were used to determine genotype and identify resistance genes. MICs of antibiotics were determined by reference broth microdilution. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between antibiotic use and H. influenzae eradication. We examined 267 H. influenzae isolates from 77 individuals. All newly acquired H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Five of 27 (19%) strains developed 4-fold increases in azithromycin MICs and reached or exceeded the susceptibility breakpoint (≤4 μg/ml) during exposure. H. influenzae isolates were uniformly susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin (MIC90s of 0.015, 0.015, and 0.06, respectively); there were no mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions. Fluoroquinolone administration was associated with increased H. influenzae eradication compared to macrolides (odds ratio [OR], 16.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67 to 104.09). There was no difference in H. influenzae eradication when comparing macrolide administration to no antibiotic (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.43 to 8.30). Fluoroquinolones are effective in eradicating H. influenzae in individuals with COPD. Macrolides are ineffective in eradicating H. influenzae, and their use in COPD patients may lead to decreased macrolide susceptibility and resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4151-4158
Number of pages8
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


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