The effect of estrogens on hepatic β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and cholesterol in serum and liver of ovarietcomized rats on normal diet, 2% cholestyramine diet or 2% cholesterol diet was investigated. Estrogen administration to ovariectomized rats on normal diet resulted in increased reductase activity and was correlated with decreased serum cholesterol and increased liver cholesterol levels wlth mestranol (ME), ethinyl estradiol (EE) and estradiol benzoate (EB, 250 μg) but increased serum and liver cholesterol levels with 25 μg and 100 μg EB administration. The increased stimulation of reductase activity by estrogen administration was absolished when rats were fed a 2% cholesterol diet. Cholestyramine feeding markedly increased reductase activity in livers of ovariectomized rats. These studies show that estrogens are not absolutely required for the stimulation of reductase activity and therefore is consistent with the model in which cholesterol functions as a feedback repressor of reductase activity.