Effect of dialyzer reuse on complement activation and neutropenia in hemodialysis

David F. Stroncek, Prakash Keshaviah, Philip R. Craddock, Dale E Hammerschmidt

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Abstract

A prospective study of 10 patients undergoing hemodialysis showed that less neutropenia and complement activation occurred with dialyzer reuse. Neutrophil counts fell 95% ± 5% (SEM) with first use and 66% ± 8% and 48% ± 10% with second and third uses, respectively (p < 0.05). The production of complement component C5a-desarg, as measured by the bioassay granulocyte aggregation, was decreased by 96% ± 1% and 93% ± 2% with second and third uses, respectively (p < 0.05). We investigated the role of the dialyzer disinfectant formaldehyde in decreased neutropenia. In vitro, formaldehyde inhibited granulocyte aggregation and chemotaxis and the dialyzer membrane's ability to generate granulocyte aggregating activity; however, this occurred only at concentrations higher than those likely to obtain in patients. The ability of dialysis membranes to generate granulocyte aggregating activity in plasma was decreased 55% ± 5% by their prior sequential preincubation in plasma and then formalin (p < 0.05) and extensive rinsing, which is similar to the circumstances obtaining with dialyzer reuse. Preincubation of membranes in plasma or formalin alone resulted in no change in the membrane's ability to generate granulocyte aggregating activity. We conclude that the exposure of membranes to both plasma and formalin during dialysis and storage is responsible for the decreased C5a-desarg production with reuse, probably because plasma proteins are fixed to the membrane in such a way that interrupts free interaction between the membrane and plasma complement components.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)304-311
Number of pages8
JournalThe Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine
Volume104
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1984

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Stroncek, D. F., Keshaviah, P., Craddock, P. R., & Hammerschmidt, D. E. (1984). Effect of dialyzer reuse on complement activation and neutropenia in hemodialysis. The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, 104(3), 304-311.