Effect of cooking time and conditions on the textural properties of meat analogues developed for stew-based dishes

Belal J. Muhialdin, Job Ubbink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this study was to produce meat analogues for stews and determine the effects of cooking conditions and ingredients on their textural properties. Pea protein isolate (PPI) matrices were extruded at water contents between 40 and 60% w/w using a twin-screw extruder equipped with a cooling die. The extruded matrices were cooked for 1–3 h in water at 95 °C. The textural properties of the extrudates were determined using Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) before and after freezing and at various time points during cooking. Freezing-thawing leads to a minor reduction (∼5–15%) of the hardness of extruded PPI as compared to freshly extruded samples. The samples extruded at a water content of 40% w/w maintained some texture even after cooking, with a reduction in hardness of 57% after 1 h and 95% after 3 h, while the samples extruded at water contents of 50% and 60% became very soft already after 1 h of cooking with a reduction in hardness of ∼90%. Cooking extruded PPI in salt (2% w/w), vinegar (pH = 5.0) and garlic (5% w/w) reduced the hardness after cooking, with the largest reduction observed for the samples cooked in salt (42–67%), compared to 0–43% for the samples cooked in vinegar and 14–39% for the samples cooked in garlic. The effect of these condiments on the hardness was observed to increase with the water content of the extrudates. Stews from five representative international cuisines were prepared with selected samples to explore the suitability of such texturized meat analogues as ingredients for traditional foods. This study demonstrates that the use of meat analogues can be broadened to different preparation methods and to dishes from diverse cultures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100861
JournalInternational Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Extrusion
  • Global cuisines
  • Meat analogues
  • Pea protein isolate
  • Stews
  • Texturization


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