Effect of cereal grains on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried beef patties

Rachel Renae Kyllo

Research output: ThesisMaster's Thesis


The effect of incorporating flours representing different anatomical parts of the grain of corn, wild rice, and oat as well as corn bran extract into beef patties on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) during grilling was investigated. Beef burgers containing 5 or 10% dry cereal solids or cereal extract adsorbed to a cellulose carrier were grilled for 7 minutes per side on an electric grill. The HAA content of the cooked material was assessed using an optimized solid-phase extraction method, reversed-phase HPLC separation, and UV and fluorescence detection. 9H-Pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman), 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman), 9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indol-2-amine (A-alpha-C), 1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-amine (PhIP), and 3,8-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxalin-2-amine (MeIQx) were detected in all burgers. Norharman and harman formation were significantly increased in fried beef patties grilled with wild rice hulls, wild rice flour, and oat hulls. Other treatments also tended to increase beta-carboline (harman and norharman) and PhIP levels relative to plain beef patties. Due to the analytical set-up it was not possible to obtain a full set of reliable data about the effect of cereal materials on the formation of MeIQx, but some materials may be able to reduce the formation of this HAA. It is concluded that the addition of whole cereal materials in beef patties is not an effective way to reduce the formation of beta-carbolines and PhIP during grilling. Definite conclusions about the effect of cereal materials on the formation of MeIQx and structurally related HAAs cannot be drawn from this study.
Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - 2012


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