Previous work indicated that bran removal promotes network formation in breads prepared from intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) flour. However, refinement reduces yields as well as contents of nutritionally beneficial compounds such as fiber. This study evaluated xylanase pretreatment of IWG bran as a processing option to enhance the properties of bread made with half of the original bran content. Xylanase pretreatment did not affect stickiness but significantly reduced hardness and increased specific loaf volumes compared to negative (without xylanase) and positive controls (with xylanase but without pretreatment). However, the surface of breads with pretreated bran was uneven due to structural collapse during baking. Fewer but larger gas cells were present due to pretreatment. Addition of ascorbic acid modulated these effects, but did not prevent uneven surfaces. Accessible thiol concentrations were slightly but significantly increased by xylanase pretreatment, possibly due to a less compact crumb structure. Endogenous xylanases (apparent activity 0.46 and 5.81 XU/g in flour and bran, respectively) may have been activated during the pretreatment. Moreover, Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor activity was also detected (193 and 410 InU/g in flour and bran). Overall, xylanase pretreatment facilitates incorporation of IWG bran into breads, but more research is needed to improve bread appearance.
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- Bran treatment
- Bran-enriched bread, perennial grains
- Intermediate wheatgrass