Goal: Sensorimotor-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have achieved successful control of real and virtual devices in up to three dimensions; however, the traditional sensor-based paradigm limits the intuitive use of these systems. Many control signals for state-of-the-art BCIs involve imagining the movement of body parts that have little to do with the output command, revealing a cognitive disconnection between the user's intent and the action of the end effector. Therefore, there is a need to develop techniques that can identify with high spatial resolution the self-modulated neural activity reflective of the actions of a helpful output device. Methods: We extend previous EEG source imaging (ESI) work to decoding natural hand/wrist manipulations by applying a novel technique to classifying four complex motor imaginations of the right hand: flexion, extension, supination, and pronation. Results: We report an increase of up to 18.6% for individual task classification and 12.7% for overall classification using the proposed ESI approach over the traditional sensor-based method. Conclusion: ESI is able to enhance BCI performance of decoding complex righth- and motor imagery tasks. Significance: This study may lead to the development of BCI systems with naturalistic and intuitive motor imaginations, thus facilitating broad use of noninvasive BCIs.
- Brain mapping
- Brain-computer interface (BCI)
- EEG source imaging (ESI)
- Motor imagery (MI)