Education and economic, political, and social change in Vietnam

Pham Lan Huong, Gerald W. Fry

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been profoundly affected by education in Vietnam. In this paper major external influences on Vietnamese education and social change are considered, including Chinese Confucian influences, French colonial influences, Soviet and US influences during the Cold War, and more contemporary international global influences as Vietnam has become part of the global economy and international regimes. The importance influence of the policy of "doi moi" (economic renovation) introduced in 1986 is seen as resulting in a major transformation in Vietnam. The paper concludes with a discussion of Vietnam's future and its goals of developing a modern economy through a priority on the development of human capital through a distinctive Vietnamese educational system, drawing eclectically and creatively on diverse external influences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-222
Number of pages24
JournalEducational Research for Policy and Practice
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 2004


  • Education and economic change
  • Education and political change
  • Education and social change
  • External influences on Vietnamese education
  • Socioeconomic transformation
  • The evolution of Vietnamese education
  • Vietnam


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