Economic and Environmental Impacts of Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in Southeast Asia

L.T.P. Nghiem, T. Soliman, D.C.J. Yeo, H.T.W. Tan, T.A. Evans, J.D. Mumford, R.P. Keller, R.H.A. Baker, R.T. Corlett, L.R. Carrasco

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82 Scopus citations


Harmful non-indigenous species (NIS) impose great economic and environmental impacts globally, but little is known about their impacts in Southeast Asia. Lack of knowledge of the magnitude of the problem hinders the allocation of appropriate resources for NIS prevention and management. We used benefit-cost analysis embedded in a Monte-Carlo simulation model and analysed economic and environmental impacts of NIS in the region to estimate the total burden of NIS in Southeast Asia. The total annual loss caused by NIS to agriculture, human health and the environment in Southeast Asia is estimated to be US$33.5 billion (5th and 95th percentile US$25.8-39.8 billion). Losses and costs to the agricultural sector are estimated to be nearly 90% of the total (US$23.4-33.9 billion), while the annual costs associated with human health and the environment are US$1.85 billion (US$1.4-2.5 billion) and US$2.1 billion (US$0.9-3.3 billion), respectively, although these estimates are based on conservative assumptions. We demonstrate that the economic and environmental impacts of NIS in low and middle-income regions can be considerable and that further measures, such as the adoption of regional risk assessment protocols to inform decisions on prevention and control of NIS in Southeast Asia, could be beneficial. © 2013 Nghiem et al.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPLoS One
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

Cited By :43

Export Date: 26 December 2018


Correspondence Address: Carrasco, L. R.; Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; email:


  • agricultural management
  • article
  • cost
  • cost benefit analysis
  • cost control
  • economic aspect
  • environmental health
  • environmental impact
  • environmental parameters
  • environmental protection
  • geographic distribution
  • human
  • introduced species
  • Monte Carlo method
  • nonhuman
  • risk assessment
  • Southeast Asia
  • species invasion


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