Retrospective examination of echocardiograms was performed in 34 patients with persistent atrioventricular (A-V) canal who had undergone cardiac catheterization. Characteristic findings in 16 patients with partial A-V canal were lack of continuity of mitral and tricuspid valves, paradoxical interventricular septal motion, definite E and A waves of the mitral valve anterior leaflet (MVAL) echoes and late systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. Eighteen patients with persistent A-V canal had an interventricular communication and were classified as having the complete form. They characteristically had continuous mitral and tricuspid valves, normal interventricular septal motion, disorganized MVAL echoes, and normal systolic mitral valve motion. Combining these findings allowed differentiation of 31 of the 34 patients (91%) as having partial or complete A-V canal. Determining the presence of a VSD from loss of interventricular septal echoes was unsatisfactory. The severity of mitral insufficiency could not be estimated from echocardiograms of the patients with partial A-V canal.