Although considerable research has investigated the use of cigarette smoking for weight management, the potential role of smokeless tobacco (ST) use in dieting behavior has not been explored. Several measures designed to assess dieting behavior, attitudes toward eating, and tobacco use were administered to adult women using ST (n = 18), cigarettes (n = 20), and no tobacco (n = 20). Use of tobacco for weight loss was prevalent among the women smoking cigarettes. Nearly half the women in the cigarette-smoking group (45%) reported use of cigarettes to assist in weight loss, and only three (16.6%) of the women in the ST group indicated use of ST for such purposes. No significant differences were to observed across groups on measures of dietary restraint or attitudes toward eating. Issues of dieting and weight control may not be important factors imprompting ST use. Implications and areas for further research are discussed.